Oleh: adiriyadhi | 2 April 2008

ADITIF
Aditif essence food is substance in food and drink which is useful to improve appeareance.ussually aditif essence didin’t have nutrient valve. (Memi malihah)

COLLOID
A colloid is a type of mechanical mixture where one substance is dispersed evenly throughout another. Because of this dispersal, some colloids have the appearance of solutions. A colloidal system consists of two separate phases: a dispersed phase (or internal phase) and a continuous phase (or dispersion medium). A colloidal system may be solid, liquid, or gaseouse. Many familiar substances are colloids, as shown in the below chart. The dispersed-phase particles have at least one dimension which is between 1 nanometre and 1 micrometer. Such particles are normally invisible to a normal microscope, though their presence can be confirmed with the use of an ultramicroscope or an electron microscope. Homogeneous mixtures with a dispersed phase in this size range may be called colloidal aerosols, colloidal emulsions, colloidal foams, colloidal dispersions, or hydrosols. The dispersed-phase particles or droplets are largely affected by the surface chemistry present in the colloid. (Eviana ayu nugroho)

PHENOL
Phenol is both a manufactured chemical and a natural substance. It is a colorless-to-white solid when pure. The commercial product is a liquid. Phenol has a distinct odor that is sickeningly sweet and tarry. You can taste and smell phenol at levels lower than those that are associated with harmful effects. Phenol evaporates more slowly than water, and a moderate amount can form a solution with water. Phenol can catch fire. Phenol is used primarily in the production of phenolic resins and in the manufacture of nylon and other synthetic fibers. It is also used in slimicides (chemicals that kill bacteria and fungi in slimes), as a disinfectant and antiseptic, and in medicinal preparations such as mouthwash and sore throat lozenges. (Eviana ayu nugroho)

IDEAL GAS
An “Ideal Gas” is a simplified “Real Gas” with the following assumption: The Compressibility factor Z is set equal to 1. Thus making the gas incompressible. The state variables will follow the ideal gas law. This approximation is more suitable for applications in engineering although simpler models can be used to produce a “ball-park” range as to where the real solution should lie. An example where the “Ideal gas approximation” would be suitable would be inside a combustion chamber of a jet engine. It may also be useful to keep the elementary reactions and chemical dissociations for calculating emissions.. (Eviana)

SOLID
A solid object is in the states of matter characterized by resistence to deformation and changes of volume at the microscopic scale, a solid has these properties: The atoms or molecules that compose the solid are packed closely together. These constituent element have fixed positions in space relative to each other. This accounts for the solid’s rigidity. In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atom in a crystal. A crystal structure is composed of unit cell, a set of atoms arranged in a particular way; which is periodically repeated in three dimensions on a lettice. The spacing between unit cells in various direction is called its lettice parameters. Because solids have thermal energy, their atoms vibrate. However, this movement is very small, and cannot be observed or felt under ordinary condition. (lin suciani)

COLLOID
A colloid is a type of mechanical mixture where one substance is dispersed evenly throughout another. Because of this dispersal, some colloid have the appearance of solutions. A colloid system consists of two separate phases: a dispersed phase (or internal phase) and a continuous phase (or dispersion medium). A colloid system may be solid, liquid, or gaseous. Many familiar substances are colloid, as shown in the below chart.(Rida)

CHARCOAL
Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. Charcoal is usually produced by heating wood, sugar, bone char, or others substances in the absence of oxygen. The soft, brittle, lightweight, black, porous material resembles coal and is 85% to 98% carbon with the remainder consisting of volatile chemicals and ash.(Fefi alfiah)

REAL GAS
Real Gas effect refers to an assumption base where the following are taken into account:
• Compressibility effect
• Variable heat capacity
• Van der Wall forces
• Non-equilibrium thermodynamic effects
• Issues with molecular dissociation and elementary reactions with variable composition
For most applications, such a detailed analysis is excessive. An example where “Real Gas Effects” would have a significant impact would be on the Space Shuttle re-entry where extremely high temperatures and pressures are present. (Siti amalia)
CARBON
Carbon is a chemical element with the symbol C and atomic number 6. It is a group 14, nonmetallic, tetravalent element, that presents several allotropic forms of which the best known ones are graphite (the thermodynamically stable form under normal conditions), diamond, and amorphous carbon. There are three naturally occurring isotopes:12C and 13C are stable, and 14C is radioactive, decaying with a half-life of about 5700 years. Carbon is one of the few elements known to man since antiquity. The name “carbon” comes from Latin language carbo, coal, and in some romance languages, the word carbon can refer both to the element and to coal.(Susi susilawati)

ZEOLITE
Zeolite is a mineral with a unique interconnecting lattice structure. This lattice structure is arranged to from a honeycomb framework of consistent diameter interconnecting channels and pores. Negatively charged alumina and neutrally charged silica tetrahedral building blocks are stacked to produce the open there-dimensional honeycomb framework Zeolites actually attract odors and gases and trap them in its crystalline structure.(Rina maryana)

ESSENCE
Essence is reflection, the movement of becoming and transition that remains internal to it, in which the differentiated moment is determined simply that which in itsellf is only negative, as illusory being. At the base of becoming in the sphere of being, there lies the determinateness of being, and this is relation to other. The movement of reflection, on the other hand, is the other as the negation in itself, which has a being only as self-related negation. Or, since the self-relation is precisely this negating of negation, the negation as negation is present in such wise that it has its being in its negatedness, as illusory being (Memi Malihah)

BIOGAS
Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas originates from biogenic material and is a type of biofuel. One type of biogas is produced by anaerobic digestion or fermentation of biodegradable materials such as biomass, manure or sewage, municipal waste, and energy crops. This type of biogas is comprised primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. The other principle type of biogas is wood gas which is created by gasification of wood or other biomass. This type of biogas is comprised primarily of nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide, with trace amounts of methane. (Nurul Aida)

CHEMISTRYELECTRO
Chemistryelectro is a methode of the chemistry reaction and electric energy in happened with a redoks reaction, while the electron transferring from the reductionisasi to be oksidationisasi. Both of the reaction can we make in to the two holf reaction. (Eka Agustian)

ACID RAIN
Acid rain is a result of air pollution. When any type of fuel is burnt, lots of different chemicals are produced. The smoke that comes from a fire or the fumes that come out of a car exhaust don’t just contain the sooty grey particles that you can see – they also contains lots of invisible gases that can be even more harmful to our environment. Power stations, factories and cars all burn fuels and therefore they all produce polluting gases. Some of these gases (especially nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide) react with the tiny droplets of water in clouds to form sulphuric and nitric acids. The rain from these clouds then falls as very weak acid – which is why it is known as “acid rain”.(SITI MAIMUNAH)
FATTY ACID
Fatty acids are aliphatic monocarboxylic acids, derived from, or contained in esterified form in an animal or vegetable fat, oil or wax. Natural fatty acids commonly have a chain of 4 to 28 carbons (usually unbranched and even numbered), which may be saturated or unsaturated. By extension, the term is sometimes used to embrace all acyclic aliphatic carboxylic acids. (Fefi alfiah)

CARCINOGEN
The term carcinogen refers to any substance, radionuclide or radiation that is an agent directly involved in the promotion of cancer or in the facilitation of its propagation. This may be due to ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes. Several radioactive substances are considered carcinogens, but their carcinogenic activity is attributed to the radiation, for example gamma rays and alpha particles, which they emit. Common examples of carcinogens are, inhaled asbestos, certain dioxins, and tobacco smoke. (Fefi alfiah)


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